An index ETF is designed to capture the investment returns from a financial market. The SmallTrades ETF Portfolio (“Portfolio”) uses index ETFs to invest in several financial markets. The goal of the Portfolio is to earn returns at a faster rate than possible by investing in risk-free bonds or the broad market of U.S. stocks, thereby ensuring that the accumulation of returns outpaces the inflation of prices in the American economy. Success is measured by the following benchmark indices:
- CPI-U, the index for U.S. inflation.
- 52-week T-Bill rate, the index for a risk-free investment (– investments in T-Bills never incur a loss (1)).
- Standard & Poor’s 500 Total Return, the index for the U.S. Stock Market.
The Portfolio is a high-risk, high-return investment in ETFs that duplicate well-established market indices for global stocks, U.S. bonds, U.S. real estate investment trusts, and gold bullion. Twenty five percent of the portfolio’s market value is allocated to each index. The ETFs generate at least 99% of the portfolio’s value and any remaining value is stored in a money market fund. The ETFs will be held indefinitely except when faced with the advantage of replacing one with a more suitable ETF for the same index.
Table of holdings
|ETF trading symbol||Market||Allocation|
|VNQ||U.S. real estate investment trusts||25%|
Unfortunately there is no 50-100 year history of ETF performance that enables the forecast of an expected return. To compensate for this limitation, two models were used to test the allocation plan shown in the table of holdings. In one model of the 15-year recovery from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the allocation plan outperformed the U.S. stock market. In the other model of the 5-year recovery from the 2008 Global Financial Crisis, the allocation plan underperformed the U.S. stock market. Among both time periods, the lowest return of the model portfolio was 8.5%.
- MARKETS portfolio of financial-market returns from 1997 to 2011: The global-stocks market was simulated by a mixture of 75% U.S. large capitalization stocks and 25% emerging markets stocks. Trading and management fees were excluded from the model. The annualized return of the portfolio was 8.5% in comparison to the 5.7% annualized return of U.S. large capitalization stocks.
- ETF portfolio of historical prices from 2008-2013: Trading fees, but not management fees, were included in the calculations (– management fees are charged in the primary market before ETFs are listed in the stock market). The annualized return of the portfolio was 10.9% in comparison to the 17.8% annualized return of SPY, an ETF that tracks the Standard & Poor’s 500 Total Return.
The holding period will be at least 5 years. Fluctuation in market prices is the main risk of investing in index ETFs. The likelihood of incurring a loss from a declining market decreases as the length of the holding period increases (– e.g., the risk of loss from stocks and bonds declines by 50% as the length of the holding period increases from 1 to 5 years; and, the risk declines by 80% when the holding period is extended to 10 years (1)).
The Portfolio will be rebalanced as needed to maintain the allocation plan within an acceptable limit of 28% error. The Portfolio is concentrated in 4 markets and losses may occur when one or several markets decline. The 25% allocation plan assigns equal weightings to each financial market in order to smooth the effect of market declines. After accounting for trading fees, the strategy of rebalancing a large allocation error is more cost-effective than using a rebalancing schedule.
The Portfolio holdings are investable, have established reputations, charge low management fees, and are safely structured. Although there’s no guarantee that the index ETFs will sustain their historical performance, the stock market, bond market, and real estate market ETFs provide diversified investments in underlying assets. The risk of investing in these ETFs is lower than the risk of investing in an underlying asset. Gold bullion ETFs are non-diversified investments in the volatile gold market. Gold bullion is theoretically susceptible to physical damage by theft or fire. This risk is diminished by investing in two funds, GLD and SGOL, that store the bullion in separate vaults located in London and Lucerne.
The investor’s tax burden can be reduced by holding these index ETFs in a tax-deferred retirement account.
Copyright © 2013 Douglas R. Knight
1. James B. Cloonan, A lifetime strategy for investing. American Association of Individual Investors, Chicago, 201