Book review: Make Your Kid a Money Genius (even if you’re not)

October 16, 2017

Beth Kobliner, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2017.

about the author

Beth Kobliner is an authority on personal finance for youth as shown by her successful publications of a NY Times best-seller book (Get a Fiancial Life), staff writer for Money Magazine, and contributing author to national newspapers. She served on President Obama’s Advisory Council on Financial Capability for Young Americans.

In this book she offers financial advice for 6 age groups: pre-school, elementary school, middle school, high school, college, and young adult. Much of her advice is based on academic studies. It’s not a textbook for children.

relevant topics for children

Most parents will discuss any topic except money; yet parents are the principal influence on their kids’ financial behavior. Many of a child’s money habits are set by age 7. This book discribes useful ways (called “teachable moments”) for talking about money with children as they grow from age 3 to young adult. Here are the author’s general comments about relevant topics for all ages:

TRUST: Parents need to build the trust of their pre-school children by following through on parental promises.
PATIENCE: Some children are impulsive, others are patient. Patient people tend to save more money! Pre-schoolers can be taught to wait for things.
CHARITY: Raise a generous child. Sharing time and money allows children to feel grateful for what they have. They are ready to show kindness by age 4. Elementary school children begin to understand the needs of others. Teen volunteers can engage in community service for their school and community. Most college students won’t have spare money, but they can donate their time. It allows them to explore the nonprofit world. Parents should honor their child’s charitable work with the same committment as other achievements in life; but, don’t overpraise their charitable efforts.
ALLOWANCE: It doesn’t matter if you give your elementary school child an allowance, but if you do, don’t make household chores a pre-requisite for receiving the allowance, use the allowance to set spending rules, and give them control of their spending decisions.
WORK: Children need to do unpaid chores and do well in school. Advanced chores such as raking leaves and doing laundry are essential to raising a self-reliant child. Elementary school children want to earn money, in which case the parent decides whether or not to pay the child for special chores. Middle school children are able to earn money. Limit the high school student’s work week to 15 hours; school is more important.
DEBT: Start teaching the basic concepts of debt to pre-school children. Middle school children need to understand the minimum monthly payments of credit card debt and protect themselves from identity theft. High schoolers are interested in car loans and credit cards; prepare them for wise use of credit cards. Parents, don’t buy your child a car or cosign for a car loan! After college, adult children are likely to have student-loan debt, car debt, or credit card debt. Parents should neither dip into their own retirement savings nor cosign for a loan as ways of helping young adults manage debt!
SHOPPING: Children want to buy stuff without limits, so parents need to start setting spending limits on pre-school children and teach the concept of ‘living within your means’. Elementary school children how to avoid being victimized by advertising and peer pressure. Tweens should spend their own money, not their parents’. If a teen prefers to spend for personal items rather than save money, they should learn from mistaken purchases. The ‘money culture’ among college students with different incomes can produce embarassment, resentment, and other strong feelings. Emphasize that college-related expenses are essential and everything else is extra.
SAVING: Parents should not raid their child’s savings. Middle school children should have a supersafe account (e.g., savings account, money market account, or CD). High school students should save for college, it will boost their motivation. Young adults should have an emergency fund and make maximal 401K deposits.
INSURANCE: Insurance is necessary for financial protection against devastating expenses. Most bankruptcies result from unpaid medical bills. Teens should pay for their car insurance and minimize their insurance rate with a good driving record. College students must have health insurance for the rest of their lives.
INVESTING: Don’t postpone the habit of investing in stocks; it’s a good way to protect against inflation. Children should learn the fundamentals and start saving small amounts at a young age. When they are old enough to understand numbers and show an interest in how money ‘grows,’ provide them with numeric examples of compound interest. High schoolers should open a Roth IRA to begin growing money.
COLLEGE: Attending college is the best pathway to earning higher wages compared to entering the workforce with a high school diploma. Middle school is the time to start talking about college and high school is the time to prepare for the college admissions process. High schoolers are advised to save for college; their chores should give way to college prep and testing. Avoid large student loans by chosing a good, inexpensive college and doing a better search for grants and scholarships. There are 3 ways to save for college:

  1. 529 Savings Plan. the earnings are tax-free for educational purposes and there is no income cap for donations. If your child rejects the plan’s participating schools, then rollover the savings to another education account, change the beneficiary to another child, or withdraw the savings with penalties.
  2. Coverdell Account. the earnings are tax-free for educational purposes, but the annual contribution is limited to $2,000 when a married couple earns less than $220,000 annually. The savings can be used for elementary school and high school educational purposes.
  3. Custodial accounts are available at banks and mutual funds. If the child’s earnings exceed $1,050, they are taxed at the child’s tax rate for the next $1,050, then at the parent’s tax rate for higher amounts until age 19 (age 24 for full time students). Colleges count the account balance as the child’s asset and expect 20% of the balance to go toward college expenses. That means less aid for the family.

The college student’s priorities are studies, a paying job [working students feel more invested in their education!], and employment after college. Does your college graduate want to start a career or go to grad school? Parents, don’t jeopardize your financial security to pay for their grad school.

the author’s curriculum and activities for pre-school children

Curriculum

EXPLAIN PATIENCE.  Patience, trust, and generosity are personal traits that facilitate financial success; pre-school training should help develop those traits.  Impulse buying reduces funds for tomorrow’s purchase! Always consider tomorrow’s purchases before buying on impulse.
Teach your children to perservere. Explain that you can’t always get what you want! Advise them to be patient (‘self control’) and wait for something.

EXPLAIN WORK.  Instill a work ethic; chores are a part of life.  Explain how you work to earn money  Convey the idea that a job is a source of pride and dignity

EXPLAIN SHOPPING.  Explain that you have to pay for things in cash (money, check) or card (debit, credit); the credit card is one way to pay (at the risk of incurring debt!).  Teach them to distrust advertising!   Explain how ads are produced with actors, scripts, colors, etc.  Explain the risks of materialism

DISCUSS CHARITY.  Be respectful of families with different levels of household income by explaining that “some people have plenty and others not enough”. Help bring your child closer to people of need by avoiding the terms “poor” and “rich” when discussing family wealth.
Worthy causes? Maybe your child needs guidance. What would they like to change in the world? Who would they like to help?

DESCRIBE THE HISTORY OF INSURANCE.  Ancient shipowners created a fund to pay for losses from shipwrecks. Their bookkeeper became the insurance company.

INTRODUCE INVESTING.  The basic concept of investing is to spend time and effort to produce something good (e.g., turning flour into bread).

Activities

PRACTICE PATIENCE.  Encourage them against skipping to the head of the line.  Discuss a communal effort (e.g., family savings pot) to save for a family reward (pizza, water park, etc.)

LEARN ABOUT WORK.  Perform household chores.  Discuss the jobs of people you know.

DISCUSS CHARITY.  Consider these charities: heifer.org , nokidhungry.org , kaboom.org , nature.org , pencilsofpromise.org , donorschoose.org.

general goals after pre-school

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. Continue the development of personal traits by adding an adult perspective on respect for other people. School children need to start managing their money and protecting it. They are vulnerable to harmful attack from many directions, including identity theft from their online accounts. Give parental guidance.

MIDDLE SCHOOL. Tweens are vulnerable to marketing campaigns, overspending, and credit card debt. Give parental guidance.

HIGH SCHOOL. Reduce the time spent on household chores. The teen’s main job is graduating from high school with a good education. Teen’s also need to prepare for higher education or entering the workforce. Give parental guidance.

conclusion

Kobliner’s book contains credible advice for the homeshooling of children in financial matters. There is much more information in her book than I’ve been able to summarize in this article. Be sure to visit her web site, “Money as You Grow”, for additional help and perspective (https://www.consumerfinance.gov/consumer-tools/money-as-you-grow/.

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Young lives matter

January 25, 2017

They need protection from the ‘streets’, a decent eduction, and financial skills.


Beta is the incline of a straight line

December 10, 2016

Beta (which is symbolized as β) is the incline of a straight line. Mathematicians would say the same thing another way, that beta is the slope of a regression line. Either way, β describes the tendency of investment returns to move with market returns. The investment is a security (e.g., stock, bond, mutual fund) that has a unit price. The market is a trading place for a large group of securities. The combined value of all securities is measured by a market index.

Returns

Trading causes security prices to change during the passage of time, a process called price movement. Calculations of β require price movements to be measured as percentage returns. In table 1, the daily closing prices of a security and its market index are listed under the column heading “close”. Percentage daily changes in closing price are listed under the column heading “Return %”.   Equation 1 is the formula used to calculate a return:

Return % = 100 x (current price – past price) / past price  (equation 1)

Notice in table 1 that all prices are a positive number and that the market’s close is bigger than the investment’s close. However, the calculated returns are positive and negative numbers of similar size. The positive and negative returns represent up and down movements of prices. Table 1 has 3 pairs of investment and market returns with corresponding dates.

table-1

Beta (β)

β may be calculated directly from a table of returns, but it’s more meaningful to analyze a scatter plot of returns. The scatter plot in figure 1 has a solid blue line derived from 5 years of daily returns represented by more than a thousand black dots. Each dot has a pair of corresponding returns on each axis.

fig-1
The blue line offers the single-best comparison of investment returns to market returns. The incline of the blue line is β, which is calculated as a ratio of the lengths AC and BC of the dashed lines. Since AC and BC have equal point spreads of 5%, β is 1.00, which means that the investment and its market TENDED to move together at the same rate of return.

Notice that the black dots are closely aligned to the blue line, therefore excluding the random movement of returns. Consequently, the blue line is highly predictive of this particular investment’s past performance.

Significance

β is a measurement that literally means for every percent of market return, the percent investment return TENDED to change by the factor of β.  This is illustrated in figure 2.

fig-2
The colored performance lines in figure 2 represent different investments. Each line offers the single-best comparison of investment returns to market returns. For the sake of graphic clarity, a large cluster of paired returns was not plotted as data points.

At β = 1.00 (black dashed line) the investment and market TENDED to move together at the same rate. At β >1.00 (yellow line), the investment performance was amplified by trading activity in the market. The yellow line’s β infers that the investment’s return was 1.72 times the market’s return. At β <1.00 (green line), the investment performance was diminished by market activity. The green line infers that the investment’s return was 0.86 times the market’s return. At β <0 (red line), the investment performance was reversed by market activity. The red line infers that the investment’s return was -3.86 times the market’s return.

Thus, β is a ‘pretend’ multiplier of market performance. Higher β ‘amplified’ the market performance, lower β ‘diminished’ the market performance, and negative β ‘reversed’ the market performance.

Risk

Risk is the chance for a capital gain and capital loss. Betas greater than 1.00 tend to be riskier investments and those lower than 1.00 tend to be safer investments compared to performance of the market. Negative β infers a reversal of investment outcomes compared to market outcomes.

Summary and advice

β is a statistic for past performance that describes the tendency of investment returns to move with market returns. When comparing the β of different investments, be sure to verify the time periods and market index used by the analyst. β is typically measured with weekly or monthly returns for the past 3-5 years.

Copyright © 2016 Douglas R. Knight


Why we need stocks and bonds

October 20, 2016

Believe it or not, Society is coming to the point where all capable people need to invest in stocks or bonds. So what are stocks and bonds, and why do we need them?

They are valuable certificates purchased from businesses by investors. Businesses need investors’ money to build and sell products to customers for a profit. Investors need the certificate to retrieve their money with a bonus payment. That bonus payment is an enticement to invest in businesses.

Stock and Bonds are different from each other. Stocks represent part ownership in a business. The stock owner hopes to collect portions of business profits called dividends and to eventually sell the stock certificate for a bonus amount. Bonds are written promises to refund investors’ money with an extra amount called interest. Both potentially offer individuals an extra source of money.

Markets for stocks and bonds will grow and endure for future generations.  More individuals will become investors out of necessity.  The details of investing are interesting and challenging.

Copyright © 2016 Douglas R. Knight


Choosing an ETF

August 16, 2016

Investing in an exchange-traded fund (ETF) begins with screening many funds to identify a few candidates, then rating the candidates. My preferred open-source screeners are XTF.com and ETF.com, both of which have inclusion criteria for selecting desirable ETFs and exclusion criteria for rejecting undesirable ETFs.  Aim to find a reputable low-cost ETF that best matches the performance of its category.

Asset class

Assets are potential sources of income to investors.  Consequently, an asset class is a group of assets that earn income the same way.  The ETF portfolio holds assets consistent with the fund’s investment strategy, which is either to copy a market index by process of passive management or compete with a market index by process of active management. The index measures the performance of an asset market.

Competing ETFs are typically grouped in one of the following asset classes:

  1. EQUITY is a share of ownership claimed through the purchase of a company’s stock. Equity ETFs earn capital gains and dividends from stocks.
  2. REIT.  The real estate investment trust (REIT) is a company that owns and manages income-producing real estate. The REIT earns money from rent, mortgage interest, or other real estate investments. At least 90% of the REIT’s taxable income must be given to shareholders in the form of dividends. REIT ETFs earn capital gains and dividends from REITs.
  3. FIXED INCOME securities pay an expected amount of interest (e.g., bonds) or dividends (e.g., preferred stock).
  4. COMMODITIES are raw materials sold in markets for use in making finished products. Commodities are sold for cash or traded in futures contracts.
  5. CURRENCY is a system of money in the form of cash or notes. The currency market trades different currencies to profit from trading fees and differences in interest rates.

Inclusions

The following inclusion criteria direct the search for reputable candidate funds desired by most individual investors:

  1. Passively managed ETFs typically charge lower fees than actively managed ETFs and likely outperform actively managed funds over long time-periods.
  2. U.S. listed ETFs comply with SEC regulations, U.S. stock exchange rules, and the U.S. tax code.
  3. One of these Asset classes: Equity (stocks), REIT (real estate), or Fixed Income (bonds).

Refine your inclusion criteria by selecting reputable indices and desired market categories.

Exclusions

The following criteria should be excluded by all but the most adventurous investors!

  1. Exchange-traded notes (ETNs) are not ETFs.
  2. Closed-end funds (CEFs) are not ETFs.
  3. Leverage and inverse ETFs are very tricky investments.
  4. Actively managed ETFs charge higher fees in order to create porfolios that outperform or underperform a market index.
  5. These asset classes:
    Alternatives (imitation hedge funds)
    Asset Allocation (actively managed mix of assets)
    Multi-Asset/Hybrid (diversified asset classes)
    Volatility (exposure to volatile market)
    Commodities (potential tax burdens)
    Currency (potential tax burdens)

Reputable index

All ETFs compete on the basis of an Index they use to design an investment portfolio. Some Indices make better measurements of market performance than others. Beware that some Indices measure untested markets. Generally speaking, the best-in-class ETFs use reputable market indices. One way of choosing a reputable index is by selecting a long-standing, oft-quoted Index provider or Index name.

Index providers are companies that specialize in measuring market performance and selling the information to financial institutions. Table 1 provides a sample of reputable Index providers.

Table1

Category and Index names

Asset Classes have unique categories. Each category may be measured in a variety of indices listed in Tables 2-4.

table2

 

table3

 

table4

Rating the candidates

By now you should have several ETFs that could satisfy your investment goal. Verify that they belong to the same category, then assess their suitability based on the following critera:

  1. Net assets, Total assets, Assets Under Management (AUM), or Market cap AT LEAST $1 BILLION.
  2. Inception date AT LEAST 5 YEARS AGO
  3. Expense ratio BELOW 1%, LOWER IS BETTER AMONG COMPETITORS
  4. Legal structure PREFERABLY “OEIC” OR “UIT” (table 5)
  5. Number of holdings CONSISTENT WITH THE MARKET INDEX.
  6. Tracking error, LOWER IS BETTER AMONG COMPETITORS
  7. Premium (Discount), LOWER IS BETTER AMONG COMPETITORS

The finishing touch

It’s a good idea to review the Annual Report of your selected ETF.  Your potential tax burden is determined by the ETF’s legal structure, its portfolio turnover, and your tax accountant’s hourly fees.

table5

Copyright © 2016 Douglas R. Knight


Empower young investors with savings plans.

May 29, 2016

The purpose of this article is to help young people make long range savings plans.  It’s a three-step process: 1) Set the goal. 2) Adjust for inflation. 3) Make recurring payments. I begin by presenting a retirement savings plan and conclude with a generic process for making other savings plans.

Planning for retirement

QUESTION: How much money should I save to start retirement?

ANALYSIS: I know people save money for future expenses even though inflation increases those expenses. Thank goodness my current budget is designed to pay for emergencies and pay all debt before retirement. If I live within my means and save 25 times my annual salary, I could safely withdraw 4% of those savings in the first year of retirement and keep withdrawing that amount, adjusted for inflation, each year of retirement. Life would be good! [refs 1-3]

GOAL: Save $25 per dollar of annual salary, plus an adjustment for inflation. The goal has 2 parts: 1) The savings account should hold at least $25 for every $1 of gross annual salary. 2) Every saved dollar should be inflated to match the Economy’s inflation rate.

STRATEGY: Start to invest regularly at the beginning of my career.

  1. Starting at approximately age 25 and finishing at approximately age 75 will provide 50 years of opportunity to save for retirement.
  2. At an annual inflation rate of 3%, the average price of everything that costs $1 today will likely be $4.38 fifty years from now (check this estimate with a future value calculator).
  3. My real savings goal is $25 X $4.38, which rounds to $110 for per dollar of salary.  The planning table in Fig. 1 will help me select a regular deposit.

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

For instance, a stock index fund that’s expected to earn a 10% annual rate of return could accumulate $110 when 9 cents per year are deposited into the account for 50 years.

How does this apply to me?  Suppose I start earning $50,000 a year at age 23 and invest in a stock index fund that earns an 8% rate of return. Thanks to the help from my parents, I already have $1,000 to open an investment account. According to the 50-year plan in Fig. 1, I will choose to deposit 18 cents per year for every dollar of salary. That means my annual deposits will be $9,000 from the $50,000 salary. If things go right, my investment account will be worth $5,546,902 after 50 years. Really?!!?

  • The future value of $1,000 is $46,902 based on an annual return of 8% for 50 years {test this calculation with the future value calculator}.
  • The planning table in fig. 1 is designed to earn $110 by making regular deposits for every $1 of salary; $110 X $50,000 = $5,500,000.
  • $46,902+$5,500,00 = $5,546,902.  Happy retirement!

THEN WHAT? Plan on safely withdrawing 4% of your savings at the beginning of retirement in order to match your annual salary before retirement; 4% of $110 is $4.40. Next year withdraw the same amount plus extra cash to adjust for inflation. The adjustment factor is (1+I) for the annual rate of inflation. Assuming that I is a 3% rate of inflation, (1+0.03) X $4.40 = $4.53. Each succeeding year, withdraw the same amount as the previous year plus an adjustment for inflation. In the first 5 years of retirement your annual withdrawals will be $4.40, $4.53, $4.67, $4.81, and $4.95 per $1 of pre-retirement salary and you will have plenty of savings for the rest or retirement [refs 1,2].

Risk management

There’s no guarantee that your plan will work. What could go wrong and how do you avoid failure? Some likely risks are missed deposits, taxes, low rates of return, brief time, and market declines.

  1. Missed deposits- Deposits energize the process of compounding interest to accumulate savings [ref 4]. Avoid missing deposits by making automatic payments through an employer sponsored savings plan –e.g., 401(k), 403(b)– or through payroll deposits into an individual retirement account (IRA).
  2. Taxes- Tax-deferred savings plans reduce your taxes. Deposits into employer-sponsored retirement-savings plans and traditional IRAs are not taxed until withdrawals are made after retirement when the withdrawals are taxed as regular income. Deposits into a Roth IRA are taxed at the time of deposit, but never taxed again. If the traditional and Roth IRAs are not affordable for you, the U.S. Government offers an affordable Roth IRA called the MyRA. If you wish to invest in Treasuries and corporate bonds, beware that they ares taxed at a higher rate than the long term capital gains from stocks.  Use a tax-deferred account to invest in bonds [ref 5].
  3. Low rates of return- Stocks reputedly pay higher rates of return than bonds. Investing in individual stocks is a risky and time-consuming effort; joining an investment club may be helpful. Consider buying shares of index funds that invest in market sectors with the understanding that investing in market sectors is riskier than investing in broad markets.
  4. Brief time- Start investing while you’re young. Starting later will require larger payments.
  5. Market declines- Since 1929 the average stock market cycle was 40 months divided into 30 months of price inclines and 10 months of price declines [ref 6]. The net effect was an uptrend in prices over long time periods. Individual investors can protect their investment returns from market declines in two ways: 1) Continue investing during market declines when regular deposits will purchase more securities at lower prices. 2) Diversify by adding bonds to your stock portfolio. This is best done by making supplemental payments for bonds in tax-deferred accounts such as MyRA.

Generic savings plan

Any long range savings plan can be made in 3 steps:

1. Set a goal for how much money you want to save. Your goal becomes the accumulated amount calculated by the compounded interest calculator [Fig. 2].

2. Adjust for inflation by multiplying your goal by the factor (1+I). I is the decimal value of the annual inflation rate. If you choose last century’s average annual inflation rate of 3.2% [ref. 7], the factor is (1+0.032). If 3.2% seems too high, use your internet search engine to discover more recent inflation rates.

3. Determine recurring payments needed per $1 of annual salary.  Display them in a customized planning table similar to Fig. 1.  Here’s how:

  • The columns are values of N for the number of years. Choose at least 2 time periods for the sake of versatility.
  • The rows are values of R for an investment’s annual rate of return. Choose a practical range of stock and bond returns for the sake of versatility.
  • The cells display fractions of $1 for making the minimal recurring deposit (d). Determine the deposits by testing trial values of d in the compounded interest calculator (Fig. 2). For example, start with d = 10 cents at the highest rate of return (R) for the longest time period (N). 10 cents represents the idea of depositing 10% of every dollar in your annual salary [Hint: it’s practically impossible to deposit more than 50 cents per dollar of salary].
  • In Fig. 2, the value of PV can be $0 unless you already have an initial deposit.

Appendix: All-purpose Savings Calculator

Try fig. 2’s all-purpose savings calculator that’s in the open-source publication of PracticalMoneySkills.com [ref. 8].

Fig. 2

CompdInterestCalculator

Note: Fig. 2 can be validated by tests using the compound interest formula for annual additions discussed in ref 4.

References

1. Jane Bryant Quinn. How to make your money last. The Indispensable Retirement Guide. 2106, Simon & Shuster, New York. 366 pages.

2. William P. Bengen. Determining withdrawal rates using historical data. Journal of Financial Planning, pages 171-180, October, 1994.

3. Craig L. Israelsen. The importance of diversification in retirement portfolios. AAII Journal, April, 2015. pages 7-10. American Association of Independent Investors.

4. Miranda Marquit. How does compound interest work for investments? ©️2016 empowering media inc. 2/18/2016.

5. Types of Retirement Plans. IRS.gov, 10/7/2015.

6. Paul A. Merriman. 22 things you should know about bear markets. Aug 24, 2015. MarketWatch.Inc, ©️2016.

7. Tim McMahon. Average annual inflation rates by decade. June 18, 2015.

8. Compound interest calculator. PracticalMoneySkills.com. ©️2010 Visa.

Copyright © 2016 Douglas R. Knight


Book Review: Blue Chip Kids, what every child and parent should know about money, investing, and the stock market.

April 24, 2016

Blue Chip Kids, what every child and parent should know about money, investing, and the stock market. David W. Bianchi. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 2015. 234 pages.

Author David W. Bianchi wrote this book for young people who are interested in spending money. He wrapped the uses of money into 3 important topics: 1) All about money; 2) Ways of investing money; and, 3) Stock markets.  Gambling was excluded from the discussion.

I was interested in learning to coach my granddaughter on ways investing money. Bianchi exposed me to very low-, very high-, and mid-range risks of investment (I wouldn’t advise my granddaughter to invest at either end of the spectrum!). Here’s my synopsis:

All about Money. “Rule #1: live within your means”.

Chapter 1 has one of the best sections in the book which describes ways of earning money throughout life. Money is a “currency”. Don’t be surprised to learn that there are many different currencies with constantly changing values. Chapter 2 describes ways of paying for things.

The best ways of borrowing money are discussed in Chapters 9-11. If you want to avoid a penalty, repay your debt on time. Payments of interest on loans are called coupons. Coupons are a cost to the borrower that are paid to the lender. Some borrowers must pay simple interest and others pay compound interest. Lenders usually prefer payments of compound interest.

Borrowers are expected to show that they are reliable (“credit worthy”) people. For example, bankers will ask to read your financial statement before giving you a loan. Your financial statement is a document that lists the total value of assets (things that you own) and liabilities (money that you owe). The difference between total assets and total liabilities is your net worth.

Governments earn money by charging taxes and selling bonds. Everybody has to pay taxes. Failure to pay any of the many taxes described in chapter 12 may lead to a government audit and penalty. Chapter 13 reveals that the U.S. Government owes 17 trillion dollars to lenders from around the world! All of us face serious consequences if our government fails to pay its debts! Meanwhile, we can protect our personal financial reputations by avoiding default and bankruptcy. Better yet, don’t borrow money. Create a budget to “live within your means”.

Chapter 15 explains the challenge of retirement, which is to continue paying bills after you stop working for a living! After you graduate from school to begin a career in early life, start saving for retirement later in life at age 60-75 years. The author wisely advises to “give yourself the ability to retire if you want to”. Your retirement income will come from retirement savings, social security, pension plans, and annuities.

Investing

Investing is all about risk and return. Treasury bonds are considered no-risk investments that return about 3% annually. The investment choices that Bianchi offered to his readers were stocks (chapters 3,8), options (chapter 5), funds (chapter 6), bonds (chapter 7), and private companies (chapter 14).

A Stock is a certificate of ownership, also called a security. Brokers don’t issue the certificate, they send a confirmation that serves as evidence of ownership. The market value of the stock usually rises when its company earns profits.

Options are contracts that guarantee the trade of an asset at a fixed price for a limited period of time. The seller earns a fee for guaranteeing the trade. The buyer pays the fee in turn for the right to execute the trade before expiration. The buyer may benefit by 1) using the option as an insurance policy, 2) exercising the option at a favorable price, or 3) trading the option in the options market.

A Fund is a pool of money collected from many investors to invest in a group of assets. The advantages of the fund are that investors don’t spend considerable time doing research and don’t spend large sums of money for a diversified portfolio. Among the types of funds are

  1. Index funds, which copy a security index and charge low fees for the service.
  2. Mutual funds, which don’t copy a security index and do charge several fees for the service.
  3. Hedge funds, which invest in anything and charge very high fees. Hedge funds have strict rules of eligibility and charge “2 and 20” fees (2% annual management fee and 20% management ‘tax’ on investment returns).

A Bond shows that you lent money to the company on condition that it returns the money, with interest, at the maturity date.  The bond’s face value is the original price (printed on the face of the bond); it is the redeemable amount!  The yield is the bond’s annual rate of return; Yield = Interest / Price.

A Private Company does not trade its stock in a public stock exchange. Private company stocks are illiquid because they don’t have an open market. Venture Capital and Private Equity firms buy stocks in private companies. Venture Capital is money invested in start-up companies. Private Equity firms inject money into established private companies in exchange for the companies’ stocks.

Stock market

Advice: It’s difficult to predict the ‘top’ and ‘bottom’ of market prices. Do homework to buy quality stocks at a reasonable price.

Chapter 3 explains that the stock market is a place for orderly buying and selling of stocks (and other securities). There are many stock markets that vary according to listed stocks and total market capitalization (‘market cap’ is the total value of the company’s shares).  Chapter 8 describes how to make stock-buying decisions, how to participate in the stock market, and how the market behaves.  David W. Bianchi, if I misread your book, then I apologize for citing 2 nearly insignificant errors that were made about investing in stocks:

  1. Contrary to statement, there is no P/E ratio = 0.  Ratios of x/0 are undefined.  Financial websites don’t report the P/E as a number when company earnings are negative or 0.
  2. A share buyback doesn’t raise the price per share of stocks; only trading activity in the market can raise the price.   A share buyback raises the earnings per share (eps), which then may raise the share price.

I believe your book is well worth reading.


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