The stock market lists several thousand stocks which have a variety of prices in relation to company profits. Company managers decide how they will use the profits to either pay dividends to shareholders or retain the earnings to build shareholders’ equity (ref. 1). The retained earnings may be used in ways that ultimately raise or lower the market price of the stock. Consequently, bankers and brokers pay attention to quarterly reports of the company profits measured as earnings per share (EPS).

Investors want to know whether the stock is priced too high (“overvalued”) or too low (“undervalued”) compared to the EPS. Professional analysts assist investors by preparing the PE, PEG, and PEGY valuation ratios.

- PE standardizes the market value of a stock for ease of comparison with other stocks.
- PEG refines the valuation of stocks by adjusting PE to the growth rate of company earnings. PE is in equilibrium with the growth of earnings at PEG = 1.
- PEGY adjusts PEG to stocks with high yields of dividends.

### PE

PE is the ratio of stock price (P) to company earnings (E). Formula 1 is used to calculate the PE (ref. 1,2):

PE = P / E, formula 1

P is the price per share and E is the EPS accumulated over a 12-month period. For more information, please see notes at the end of this article.

**example**: if one share of stock is priced at $50 and the company’s annual EPS is $5, then 50/5 equals 10/1. The PE is 10.

The timing of company earnings determines whether the PE is labeled as “trailing” or “forward”.

**Trailing PE** is the current price per share divided by the EPS accumulated from the past 12 months or past 4 quarters. Trailing PE is based on known quantities. **Forward PE** is the current price divided by the accumulated EPS expected for the next 12 months or next 4 quarters. Forward PE is an uncertain forecast of future market value based on the management’s or analyst’s expectation the EPS for the next 12 months.

PE represents the market value of all shareholders’ claims to $1 of annual EPS, past or future. The market value is judged to be high (“overvalued”) or low (“undervalued”) compared to an arbitrary estimation of fair value. There are several ways of determining a fair value.

- Compare the stock’s PE to an average PE of the industry, market, or historical record (ref. 3).
- Normalize the PE to the company’s rate of earnings growth, which generates the PEG ratio. By convention, the PE is fairly valued when PEG = 1 (ref 5,6).
- The least practical method is a comparison to some theoretical PE that is not readily available to most investors (ref 1,4).

### PEG

PEG is the ratio of PE to G (ref. 1,7,8; formula 2):

PEG = PE / G, formula 2

G is the compound annual growth rate of EPS over a time period of 3-5 years, perhaps even longer in special cases. For more information, please see endnotes.

**example**: if one share of stock is priced at $50 with an annual EPS of $5 and a 10% compound annual growth rate of EPS, then 50/5/10 equals 1.00. The PEG is 1.00.

PEG measures the market value of a stock relative to the company’s rate of earnings growth (ref. 7,8). The theoretical equilibrium between market value and the rate of EPS growth occurs at PEG = 1.0. PEGs below 1.0 suggest undervaluation and those above 1.0 suggest overvaluation (ref. 9).

Trailing- and Forward PEGs represent the stock’s market value relative to past and future eras (ref. 7,8). **Trailing PEG** is a factual measurement of market value provided that the EPS was measured during the past year and the EPS growth rate occurred during the past several years. **Forward PEG** is an uncertain prediction of market value based on the company’s expected earnings for next year and an analyst’s forecast of earnings growth for the next several years.

**examples**: when the forward PEG is above 1.0, the market expectation of growth exceeds consensus estimates and the stock is overvalued (ref. 8). If PEG is below 1.0, the stock is undervalued (ref. 2,7).

Limitations of PEG (ref. 3,8):

- The EPS growth forecast may be invalid.
- Another variable besides PEG could add or subtract value to the investment. For example, PEG ignores the value of a cash-rich company.
- An overvalued company, for example one with a PEG of 3.0, might still be a stable investment despite its low rate of earnings growth.
- PEG is best suited for stocks that don’t pay dividends; otherwise, calculate the PEGY.

### PEGY

Some investors prefer high-yield ‘value’ stocks rather than low-yield ‘growth’ stocks. High yield stocks typically pay higher dividends at lower EPS growth rates (e.g., the stocks of utility companies). PEGY includes dividends in its valuation ratio for high-yield stocks (ref. 8; formula 3).

PEGY = PE / (G+Y), formula 3

Y is the stock’s dividend yield. Dividend yield is the ratio of the annual dividend per share to the price per share.

**example**: if one share of stock is priced at $50, the annual EPS is $5, the compound annual growth rate of EPS is 8%, and the dividend yield is 5%, then what are PEG and PEGY?

PEG = 50/5/8 = 1.25. PE is overvalued if the high dividend is excluded.

PEGY = 50/5/(8+5) = 0.77. PE is undervalued if the high dividend is included.

### Payback period

Besides measuring market value, the PE and PEG also predict the stock’s payback period. A payback period is the amount of time needed for the accumulation of company earnings to match the original amount of investment. If all accumulated earnings were paid to investors, which is unlikely, the payout would provide a 100% return. Longer payback periods represent riskier investments, especially when the company is still establishing its market position or competing with innovative companies (ref. 9,10,11).

The PE ratio also represents a payback period measured in years.

**example**: if a stock is priced at $50 per share and the EPS is $5 per share every year, then $50/share divided by $5/share/year equals the payback period of 10 years. The same units of $/share cancel each other in the numerator and denominator.

The PE payback period is the time needed for an accumulated EPS to equal the original share price, assuming the EPS remains constant during the accumulation period. Most companies don’t repeat the same EPS every year.

The PEG payback period accounts for the desired phenomenon of EPS growth. The PEG payback period is the number of years that the growth of earnings accumulates enough value to match the original investment (ref. 9,10).

**example**: if a stock is priced at $50 per share, the EPS is $5 per share, and the EPS growth rate is 10%, it would take 7 years for the EPS to accumulate a value of the original stock price of $50. The PEG payback (7 years) is earlier than the PE payback (10 years) due to the 10% rate of earnings growth.

### Conclusions

Company earnings are a strong determinant of stock value. PE, PEG, and PEGY ratios represent the stock market’s valuation of company earnings. Don’t rely solely on company earnings to judge the investment value of stocks. Also assess the business performance and company value (ref. 2,6).

### Endnotes

Formula 1: PE = P / E

- P is the current auction price for a share of common stock listed in the stock market. The auction price fluctuates often depending on when a trading order is filled at an agreeable price between buyer and seller. Analysts typically use the closing price of the latest trading day to calculate the PE.
- E is one year’s accumulation of the company’s earnings per share of
*common stock*[EPS]. EPS represents the company’s net income divided by its outstanding shares and fluctuates at quarterly intervals. Any guaranteed payments of dividends to shares of*preferred stock*automatically reduce the EPS before calculation of the PE. EPS depends on the analyst’s choice between GAAP- and non-GAAP earnings and choice between basic and diluted outstanding shares.

Formula 2: PEG = PE / G

- PEG fluctuates with frequent changes of PE and infrequent changes of G.
- G is the EPS growth rate, which is the compound annual growth rate of EPS for a time period of at least several years. Although G is measured as a percentage change of EPS per year, the common practice is to ignore the units of measurement when calculating PEG.
- Trailing PEG is the trailing PE divided by the G for past earnings.
- Forward PEG is the forward PE divided by the G for future earnings.

### REFERENCES

1. How to Find P/E and PEG Ratios, by Thomas Smith, Investopedia LLC. http://www.investopedia.com/articles/fundamental-analysis/09/price-to-earnings-and-growth-ratios.asp?lgl=v-table

2. How to use the PE Ratio and PEG to tell a stock’s future, by the Investopedia Staff, updated March 17, 2016. http://www.investopedia.com/articles/00/092200.asp

3. What is the PEG Ratio? https://www.fool.com/knowledge-center/peg-ratio.aspx

4. Aswath Damodaran, Intrinsic Valuation in a Relative Value World. http://people.stern.nyu.edu/adamodar/pdfiles/country/relvalFMA.pdf .

5. PEG Ratio; From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. pages 6-7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PEG_ratio

6. How useful is the PEG Ratio? Joseph Khattab, April 6, 2006. The Motley Fool. https://www.fool.com/investing/value/2006/04/06/how-useful-is-the-peg-ratio.aspx

7. Price/Earnings to Growth- PEG Ratio. Investopedia LLC. http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/pegratio.asp

8. PEG Ratios Nail Down Value Stocks, by Ryan Barnes, 11/24/2015. Investopedia LLC. http://www.investopedia.com/articles/analyst/043002.asp?lgl=v-table

9. Double your dollars. Selena Maranjian, September 7, 2010. The Motley Fool. https://www.fool.com/investing/value/2010/09/07/double-your-dollars.aspx

10. Payback period = double your money. Course 304: PEG and Payback Periods. Morningstar, 2015. http://news.morningstar.com/classroom2/course.asp?docId=3066&page=2&CN=C

11. The longer the payback period, the greater the risk. Course 304: PEG and Payback Periods. Morningstar, 2015. http://news.morningstar.com/classroom2/course.asp?docId=3066&page=3&CN=C

**Copyright © 2017 Douglas R. Knight**